Chapter questions

Discussion Question #2

Chapter 6

# 1. The same population may be affected by multiple micronutrient deficiencies, although people at different life stages and certain socioeconomic or geographic groups may be more vulnerable to individual nutrient deficiencies. Discuss ways in which single-micronutrient deficiency prevention strategies might be combined, integrated, or coordinated to achieve cost-effective control.

 Single micro-nutrient deficiency prevention strategies can be combined, integrated or coordinated to achieve cost effective control by diversifying diet to assure variety and quality or fortifying one or more foods with other nutrients in the processing stage of at the point of consumption. This way, the community members will receive multiple micronutrients at the same time thereby reducing costs of distribution (Merson, Black & Mills, 2012, pp. 301-325).

2.  A lower-middle-income country may be afflicted with both high rates of childhood undernutrition and a rising epidemic of obesity among its lower socioeconomic groups while undergoing a nutrition transition. Discuss the challenges that this situation poses for the country’s government in developing food and nutrition policies as well as national dietary guidelines for healthy eating.

The main problem that the situation poses to the country government is mainly logistical problems. Most of the countries in transition are faced by a dual burden in which two groups are at the extreme ends  of the health continuum because of the diet related  tend to co-exists. For example, these countries have fixture foot under-malnutrition, and malnutrition. As a country develops, the types of diseases that affect a population shift from primarily infectious, such as diarrhoea and pneumonia, to primarily noncommunicable, such as cardiovascular disease and cancers

3.  The Ministry of Health of a lower-incomecountry has decided to institute a nationalnutrition surveillance system to monitor thecountry’s most pressing child and maternalnutrition problems. Discuss the kinds ofnutritional problems, target groups,approaches to assessment, options for routinecontact in the community, and types ofagencies to organize into a surveillance systemto guide the ministry

Nutritional problems are complex in their aetiology, and there are many different nutritional deficiency diseases. The main target groups include children and women. The children groups such as childhood, infant and adolescents. The women either pregnant or lactating should be given consideration how they occur is one vital part of solving and, better still, preventing nutritional problems The ability to predict their occurrence makes prevention a more realistic prospect.

Chapter 7

#1.  What are the leading risk factors thatcontribute to death and disability in low- andmiddle-income countries, and how do theydiffer from those found in high-incomecountries?

The, leading risk factors that contribute to death and disability in the low income and middle-income countries include chronic diseases (account for 91% of deaths) caused by lifestyle changes leading to changes in food consumption. Other risk factors include exposure especially children exposure to smoke through secondary smoking, great availability of marketing of energy dense foods, as well as decreased opportunities for physical exercise. Others include high blood pressure, high blood level of low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol and stress. The main differences between the risk factors among the low income and those found in the high-income countries is mainly the difference in lifestyle.

# Which policies and actions taken over the nextdecade at national and international levelscould influence these trends, and which factorsmight facilitate their implementation?

.  Enhancing global governance communicable disease presentation, control and treatment can help eliminate communicable diseases.  The main risk factors that tend to influence this trend include poverty, ignorance and inequality. The main factors that might facilitate the improvement global health are global governance. Global governance is the only way that Policy coherence can be achieved (Merson, Black & Mills, 2012)

#3. Describe how globalization could be positively harnessed for chronic disease prevention. In doing so, consider how public–private partnerships involving major multinational corporations could play a more effective role in health promotion and chronic disease prevention. 

 Globalization provides an opportunity for preventing chronic diseases. For example, there are considerable expertise available in academic centers especially in the high-income countries such as the US, and UK. Through globalization, these expertise can be mad available. Secondly, globalization has enabled resource mobility making it easy for both public health personal; and drugs to e shipped across borders to help prevent chronic diseases. Merson, Black & Mills (2012) argue that globalization has made it easy to formulate and implement health related polices across the world, which could not have been possible without globalization. Public private partnership could play a major role in health promotion through corporate social responsibility in health promotion, or by funding research and logistics and foreign direct investment (Holtz, 2013).

References

Holtz, C. (2013). Global Health Care: Issues and Policies. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Merson, M., Black, R., & Mills, A. (2012). Global Health: Diseases, Programs, Systems, and Policies (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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