THE HUMAN BODY: PROCESSES AND ACTIVIVITIES

1) A human body requires a member of biological characteristics in order to survive ; these are respiration (external and internal). Nutrition or feeding, excretion, movement, sensitivity and responsiveness, growth and reproduction. DISCUSS each characteristic, explaining why it’s essential inside the human body, giving relevant examples of each characteristics .

2) Metabolism is described as the sum of all of the chemical reactions that occurs inside the cells of the human body; explain what is meant by this, giving examples of metabolic reactions inside the cell. Explain the terms ” Catabolism and anabolism” giving examples of cell organelles where each happens .

3) a sprinter can run 100m and gets tired, whilst a marathon runner can run 26miles. They both release energy (ATP) in the cell , however the sprinter will experience fatigue before the marathon runner, why is this? Consider anaerobic and aerobic respiration when answering this question .

4) explain the movement of substances in and out of the cell through passive and active transport

5) Discuss the lock and key mechanism of enzymatic action with the reference to how enzymes catabolise a reaction in another substance .

6) In a test using enzyme trypsin, the enzyme was added to milk to test for the presence of glucose. The test result was negative , why was this?

7) A sailor is lost at sea; he drank sea water and died the next day . When his body was recovered, paramedics said he would have survived if he had not drunk the sea water , explain why the sea water killed him?

THE HUMAN BODY: PROCESSES AND ACTIVIVITIES

INTRODUCTION

The human body involves a number of processes to ensure that life exists and therefore they are crucial. Apart from the process, a human body in which life exists carries out a number of activities. All these biological processes are important for the body to function properly as normally.

A human body requires a member of biological characteristics in order to survive; these are respiration (external and internal). Nutrition or feeding, excretion, movement, sensitivity and responsiveness, growth and reproduction. DISCUSS each characteristic, explaining why it is essential inside the human body, giving relevant examples of each characteristic.

Respiration

Respiration refers to the process by which the human body converts nutrients to biochemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and release the waste product. There are two types of respiration being aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Aerobic respiration requires oxygen to release ATP. However much proteins, carbohydrate and fats the process consume, it best suits pyruvate breakdown in glycolysis that the pyruvate enters the mitochondria for full oxidation by the Krebs cycle. The products of this process are carbon dioxide, water and energy. Aerobic respiration on the other hand, is the process of oxidation of the biological fuels in the presence of an inorganic electron receptor to release large amounts of energy. This is however not important to the human body unless it is derived and the body consumes it through ingestion. Respiration is important since it derives energy for the human body from the food particles.

Nutrition

Nutrition is the intake of food by the human body in relation to the body dietary needs. A good nutrition should consist of a well balanced diet with regular physical activity to ensure god health. One should not eat the same type of food everyday for health purposes. Each type of food ha its role to play in the well-being of the body one should incorporate all in his/her diet. A meal should always incorporate food-containing vitamins, carbohydrates, protein, water, fats and oil to sum up to a balanced diet. Good nutrition ensures adequate energy, bodybuilding, healing and generally good health.

Excretion

Excretion is the process by which the human body releases the waste matter from the body. The waste matter results from the other systems of the body. Metabolic processes release waste products in form of carbon dioxide. Feces and urine are wastes from the body via the colon, kidneys, lungs, or skin all of which results from digestion. Excretion is important in the human body since it helps eliminate these waste products from the body which otherwise become toxic since they are of no use to the body.

Movement

Human beings move from one place to another as its routine characteristic. Human beings like other animals are able to move both wholly and partially unlike the plants. Partial movement involves changing the position of one part or parts of the body, for example stretching one’s hands. Whole movement in the human body refers to the change in position of the completely. Walking is an example of such. Movement is important since it allows the human body carries a number of activities for instance feeding. It also helps the human being escape their enemies through running away and merely walking.

Sensitivity and Responsiveness

The other major characteristic of the human body is sensitivity and responsiveness. Sensitivity, a particular kind of stimulus, is the strength of the feeling the changes in the environment while responsiveness is the process by which the human body responds to these changes .The two goes together since the human body should sense respond positively to the change. For example, the human feel the evening is chilly and one puts on a pull over. Another example is whereby one becomes hungry and looks for food. Human beings just like all the other organisms react to changes in their environment. Sensitivity and responsiveness are therefore crucial in the human life since it helps the body adapt to any given condition.

Growth

Growth in human beings entails the physical changes due cell differentiation. The human growth begins from first stage after fertilization. It majorly involves the increase in size of a human being at specific stages. As the human being grows, he/she becomes more energetic to some asks that would support life hence the importance of growth.

Reproduction

Reproduction, being another important characteristic of a human being, is the process by which parents produce offspring that would be the members of the next generation. Reproduction in human being is the sexual type whereby the two parents contribute to the genetic information of the offspring. Human reproduce by giving birth their live young ones. It is important since human beings replicate themselves.

2) Metabolism is described as the sum of all of the chemical reactions that occurs inside the cells of the human body; explain what is meant by this, giving examples of metabolic reactions inside the cell. Explain the terms “Catabolism and anabolism” giving examples of cell organelles where each happens.

Metabolism is a set of chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. The enzymes catalyze these reactions allowing the organism, human being in this context, to grow through cell differentiations. The process of metabolism provides the body with the necessary energy. Metabolic processes are of two in classifications, that is catabolic and anabolic processes. Catabolic processes involve the breakdown of complex molecules from food into smaller units that which act as building blocks for new molecules. Anabolic pathways on the other hand, involve the use of energy from catabolism to build new chemicals that become components of cells. Metabolic processes occur in both cell cytosol and in the mitochondria.

A sprinter can run 100m and gets tired, whilst a marathon runner can run 26miles. They both release energy (ATP) in the cell, however the sprinter will experience fatigue before the marathon runner, why is this? Consider anaerobic and aerobic respiration when answering this question.

A sprinter gets tired very fast since he/she gets out of breath in the whole moment of the sprinting exercise. This is because sprinting is a type of anaerobic exercise hence it occurs without oxygen since the sprinter does it at a higher intensity. However, a marathon runner performs his/hers in a low intensity hence with oxygen. This is a case of aerobic exercise therefore, the takes some good time to get tired compared to a sprinter.

explain the movement of substances in and out of the cell through passive and active transport

Substances move in and out of the cell through two major processes being, active and passive transport. In Passive transport, there is the cellular process of movement of molecules and other substances across membranes. Active transport on the other hand involves the movement of molecules across a cell membrane but in the direction against their concentration gradient.

Discuss the lock and key mechanism of enzymatic action with the reference to how enzymes catabolise a reaction in another substance.

Catabolic process, a type of metabolism, is very important in the human body. It happens with the aid of an enzyme. The enzymatic action involves the breakdown of complex molecules from food into smaller units that which act as building blocks for new molecules.

In a test using enzyme trypsin, the enzyme was added to milk to test for the presence of glucose. The test result was negative, why was this?

Trypsin reacts with milk therefore; in a solution of milk, it breaks down casein in it. The rate of this reaction is measurable by considering the amount of time it takes the milk to turn translucent. Milk is therefore not a suitable solution test for the presence of glucose using trypsin. The test would rather be negative in this case. This therefore explains why the result of the test became negative.

A sailor is lost at sea; he drank seawater and died the next day. When his body was recovered, paramedics said he would have survived if he had not drunk the seawater; explain why the seawater killed him?

Seawater contains many salts as a major component. Cells in human beings take in both salt and water when one drinks the seawater. The salt content in seawater is much higher than what the human body can process. Even though, living cells require salt to maintain the body’s chemical balances and reactions, too much sodium can be deadly. This explains why the lost sailor died.

CONCLUSION

We realize that the human body contains quite a number of systems, processes and activities, which counts to life generally. All these processes are related and therefore the functioning of one influences that of the other.

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