Summary of the main theme in social support

Grace Ballek analyzed the Influence of onset, type, and severity of a parental illness on family adjustment. She also argues that their families tend to cope with parental illness differently and in most case, the way they cope with the illness in their families differed at the onset, based on the type of illness and the severity of the illness. She also argues that in the illness in one family member affected the whole family. For example, the case of maladjustment as well as denial and depression. On the other hand, the reaction of the family at onset can help the gamily cope easily with an illness. It is worth noting that in case of an illness, both the patient and the family must adjust, and this involves both psychological and physical adjustment.

On the other hand, Catherine posits that there are four main mediating factors when it comes to family coping with the illness of their loved ones. For example, she noted that threat to famous; youth stress response, family role redistribution as well as youth daily hustles. However, there are also moderating variables when it comes to coping with illness in the family. Parental illness and the dismal effect on the family is mainly meditated by the threat to the families identity as people try to adjust to their new family condition following the injury or illness of the family member., this bespoke a very important issue when the sick member of the family is the head of the family. The families have to redistributes the roles for the family to function smoothly. This mean mire workload and responsibilities. However, for a family to cope with such problems, they must understand that they have to reserve the family functioning through emotional and social support of the family members because the family dynamics are highly affected by the sickness of any family members.

Zoe Wuckovich: Social Support for Patients of Traumatic Brain Injury

Social support is the key theme in a number of patient recovery and family coping research. The sick family members become an additional burden to the family because they are either partially or fully dependent on the social other family members who must work hard to ensure that the family’s framework is still functional despite the illness of the family member.

Question: How does the social support during the family illness rate in the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire.

The Norbeck social support questionnaire is one of the validated questionnaires for rating and analyzing social support. The papers analyzed social support during parental illness and specifically focused on the children, role redistribution, and the threat to family dynamics (ecology frameworks and). The research has only focused on the family members but has no determined how the partners and the others cope during parental illness. In a bid to analyze how the partners, family, friends as well as others cope during parental illness it is advisable to use a comprehensive and validated framework such as the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. If parental illness, injury, or disability can be taxing to the family, the family functioning and the overall family dynamics, how do the other people cope with the sickness of the family member k friend, or partner? In as much as the impact of the parental illness on the children is physical and mental development is huge. Therefore, it is important to understand the ability of the partners, family, friends and others to cope with the parental illness before recommending an adaptation strategy. Using the family ecology framework can only help when focusing on the family especially the children. How does one determine the right adaptation strategy, recommendation as well as case management when dealing with CID. It is important to use the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire to focuses not only on the patient, but also on the family both nuclear and extended. Parental sickness is a proximal mediator and a threat to the family functioning.


Psychosocial adjustment for family members experiencing of a CID is on of the most difficult experience. The Norbeck Social Support Questionnaires is useful for determining the measures of depression, family illness demands, marital quality, and family functioning. Psychological functioning of the patient can really be affected by the illnesses. It is important to understand that the illness of the parent can highly effect the chidden. When a parent is diagnosed with a CID, the children become stressed by the severity of the stress is manly dependent on the Piegetian stage of development of the children. At the fist Piegetian stage (the sensory monitor’s stage); the sickness of the parent may not affect the children that much because the children are still oblivious of the environments around them. However, at the preoperational stage children they start to understand that their parent’s illness affects them. At the concrete operational, the children start to view things logically from other people’s point of view. They can comprehend their situation and may be psychologically affected by stress and depression.

Therefore the children, the partners, and the other friends are affected it is important to measure the average amount of support from all these other sources and how it affects the family, and the patient.

The family member may be able to provide the required affective support. It is also advisable to note the varying characteristics of the sick parents. For example, while women can be more confiding about the illness, the men are discrete. It advisable to focus on the measures of both individual, dyadic as well as family adjustment to the parental sickness as well as affect and affirmation from the children, the family, and friends as they are important to the overall family functioning.

Questions 2: Social support is the key theme in a number of patient recovery and family coping research. The sick family members become an additional burden to the family because they are either partially or fully dependent on the social other family members who must work hard to ensure that the family’s framework is still functional despite the illness of the family member. The papers have not analyzed how the patient can help their families cope with their medical condition considering the fact that they are now another burden to the family. How can they contribute to the family’s outcome during the time they are sick, Can a patient agree to the taken to the hospital even when they are not terminally ill because the family needs to continue with their routine? Should a family hire someone to take care of their sick family members at home?


Psychological functioning of the patient can really be affected by the illnesses. It is important to understand that the illness of the parent can highly affect the children as well as their partner and other friends. Therefore, in the case of terminally ill people, it is important to seek long-term solutions. It is also important to note that role redistribution may contribute to the overall outcome. But leaving patient in the care of a stranger can affect the overall outcome and even delay recovery because the patient need to be with their loved ones so that they feel part of the family despite their conditions. In as much as daily routines are important, families need to adjust faster and even the children should be supported to adjust as they have varying levels of psychological development. The family should support one another with their roles as this only motivates the patients. The patient may be in comatose but their cognitive function is still intact. Therefore, with the family support they can respond better to treatments, and even recover faster. Both family and patient support is important during parental illness.

Summary Of The Theme In Patient Coping And Self-Efficacy During Rehabilitation

Wesley Fogg has highlighted the theory of self-efficacy in recovery and rehabilitation. The paper argues that unrealistic sense of self-efficiency may be defective as it puts the disabled at risk of further injury and possibly, disability. The writer also argues that self-efficacy has a strong correlation with the rehabilitation adherence and recovery. It is also important to note that through this research, the patients and the doctors need to understand that self-efficacy plays a major role as a predictor and mediator4s or the rehabilitation outcome but the patients must be informed and supported because they may be too ambitious. Doctors must study josh and create context that can facilitate the rehabilitation process. Brooke argues that a patient’s self-efficacy can affect their recovery. Low self-efficacy can lead to deterioration in health, depression and even affect the rehabilitation outcomes. It is clear that traditional techniques of increasing self-efficacy can help improve the rehabilitation outcomes. Task efficacy, barrier efficacy and scheduling self-efficacy are the main predisposing factors in rehabilitation process. It is also important to note that family support and therapy are important pertinent to recovery. On the other hand, Mel Giegerich proposes that self-efficacy and Imagery are the key factors in patient success.

Patient may have a negative or positive rehabilitation experience based on their self-efficacy. Self-efficacy determines one’s behaviors, physical activities, as well as efforts towards recovery. For one support is much more important and this must come from the clinicians as well as the family. Therefore, clinicians should encourage high self-efficacy in patients and use imagery to motivate them of how much they can achieve then recovery can be much faster.

Questions 1: influencing self efficacy

Self-efficacy refers to: ‘beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required producing given attainments’ (Bandura, 1977, 3). However, it is important to note that despite all these discussions, the writers have failed to analyze how hospitals and families can induce self-efficacy. Self-efficacy can be inflected, but how can they be effectively influenced such that the outcome of the rehabilitation is improved. For example, josh wanted to recover faster to participate in the Paralympics. The main problems are how the outcome can be influenced for faster and effective recovery with minimal supervision. During both home or hospital rehabilitation, the family member have their responsibilities and this mean that they will not be available most of the time to offer moral and emotional support the patient, but they can help the patient vicariously. However, how can the family members influence self-efficacy in both home rehabilitation program, and hospital rehabilitation program? How does verbal persuasion, vicarious experience as well as physiological and affective states influence self-efficacy


Even though Jenkins argues that, the most influential component of self-efficacy is performance outcomes and, more specifically, mastery (positive) experiences. Patient should set SMART goals in order to recover faster. However, these goals must be measurable and realistic. However, it is important to realize that vicarious experience can contribute effectively to self-efficacy. Therefore, family’s member should be involved in rehabilitation setting to as to learn what to do in the event illness disability. Patients must be able to experience physiological feedback and emotional arousal as it is a major component of recovery.

Questions 2: Use of Self-efficacy for rehabilitation outcome scale in the case of Josh

despite the research indicating that self efficacy for rehabilitation scale has an excellent internal reliability and external validity is it possible that in josh case, his self efficacy was mainly the self efficacy in overcoming the barriers and not self efficacy for the rehabilitation therapy exercise. Josh was motivated to be in the Olympics was but almost emotionally broken down when his physical condition did not import as fast as he wished. Does both self-efficacy for overcoming barriers and self efficacy for rehabilitation work in cohort or is one subscale more important that the other.


To answer this question, it is important to note that both the subscale have varying effect on the overall rehabilitation outcomes. For example, the ability of Josh to perform the required the rehabilitation behaviors is influenced by his desire t over come outcomes. Therefore, if one concentrates on one subscale, then the outcome will not be the same as when he concentrates on both subscales. In the same breath, Self efficacy can help a patient overcome difficult adjustment, but it always provide one with the emotional feeling that can guide them through t their home rehabilitation program. The patient must have high self-efficacy despite their rehabilitation environment, without self-efficacy, adjustment and recovery may be delayed. However, over confidence, and inflated self-efficacy can be counter effective because is one fails to achieve the desired outcome, they can become depressed and stressed and this ultimately affect ones motivation to recover.


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