How is modernization defined according to sociologists?
Sociologists define modernization as a process by which nations move from traditional forms to post-industrial ones
Outline the Modernization approach to global inequality, including Rostow’s stages.
What are the critiques of Modernization theory?
The main critiques of modernization theory include the fact that the theory is ethnocentric making the less modern societies primitive. The other criticism is that modernization proposes and developed a see if cultural dominance and imperialism. It also advances consumerism. Rostow’s stages of economic growth include traditional society where the economy is mainly subsistence farming for home consumption, the second stage it is called tradition state as the community produces surpluses that they trade, the third stage is called take off stage compose of industrialization, the fourth stage is called drive to maturity composed of diversification of sources of income, and food and introduction of technological innovation. Finally, the fifth stage is called high mass consumption, which involves consumerism, and over production. At that stage, urbanization is advances
Outline the “Colonial” approach to global inequality. Think: how would they respond to a Modernization theorist?
Colonial approach to global inequality is that there are many countries that cannot be self-sustaining without depended on others for support. Therefore, they get financial and political assistance in exchange for sustained political, social, economic and cultural dominance. They would respond to modernization theorist by saying that all animal are equal but some animas are more equal than the others are. This means that they must dominate the less equal. To the colonialist, modernization is not realistic
Outline the concept of Neo-Colonialism. How is it different from older Colonial forms?
Neocolonialism is the modern forms of colonization in which proletarians are kept depend in the end in exchange for monetary, Aid, Industry, Technology, Investment, and goods and services. Neo-colonizer seeks to keep the developing countries depend on the developed countries through manipulation and other mechanism including monetary mechanism
Outline the World Systems approach to global inequality.
This approach is founded on the argument that Dependency is key, and each transitioning societies must either remain weaker and subservient thereby not moving to the next
According to the World Systems approach, what are the three classes of countries and what are the different characteristics of each?
There are three classes of countries include:
Core- strong economies and globally influential include US, UK, Japan, Germany, France
Semi-periphery- marginal to modest economies and serve as a buffer between the others such as China, India, Mexico, Ireland, Brazil
Periphery- marginalized and easily exploited by the richer nations such as Afghanistan, Haiti, Vietnam, Chad, Bolivia
Why is global debt an important factor in global inequality?
Global debt is the only tool used by the capitalists to rule the proletariats
What is the International Monetary Fund? How does it propose to work?
IMF is a primary mechanism that shape global inequalities. For example, Lend money to poor countries, they enforce structural adjustments that are used to manipulate and control the operations of the poor countries.
What are structural adjustments put on developing nations?
Structural Adjustments are forced changes to a society that gives them the terms under which they operate such as findings and allocation of resources that might develop them thereby suppressing their development
What is the World Bank? How does it propose to work?
An international organization characterized by cross conditionality. Composed of 186 member nations who own shares in the bank and vote on economic issues. It lend money to poor countries, looking towards the long term stability
Outline the basic premise of the Multinational Corporation in relation to a global assembly line
Commercial organizations headquartered in one country and doing business around the world. Initially, there will be increases, provide Investment capital, and Technology. Then over time decreases to maintain influence, and control local entrepreneurs
Outline the fundamental tenets that underlie modern slavery.
The fundamental tenets of modern slavery is control through
What are the characteristics of the 3 forms of modern slavery? (See Bales for additional reference).
Chattel slavery > most closely approximates old forms
Debt Bondage > pledge self against financial debt
Contract slavery > labor-based agreement
What are the major factors that contribute to the persistence of modern slavery? (See Bales for additional reference).
Race matters little
Control without ownership
“Morality of Money”
What is the difference between relative and absolute poverty? Which is more problematic at the global level?
Relative > compared to others
Absolute > cannot meet basic needs
Absolute poverty much more of a concern globally