Business continuity is not anew topic in the business environment as disaster are abound. The main driver for having a business continuity and business resiliency plan is to enable a business resume smooth operations after a disaster. All organizations are faced with both internal and external threats. Therefore, an organization must have in place plans including processes and procedures for handling any threat or disruption to the business. A business continuity plan is therefore important as it provides a road map to the organization under adverse conditions. It is also important to note that business continuity planning is referred to as Business continuity and resiliency planning BCRP, while in the US; it is referred to as continuity of operations planning. The continuity of operations plan establishes the priorities and procedures that the business will use to sustain its operations and provide it alternative methods as well as location of operations in the event of an extended event (Wold, 2006; Stourac, 2014, pp. 260-9 ).
For an organization to operate post disaster and still maintain its competitive edge and the integrity of its value system, it is important to have in place proper guidelines to the employees and the management on what to do, and how to behave. It is also important to establish priorities based on the importance of processes, plans, and the operations. The critical business functions must be given priority in this case. For example, a business organization such as supermarket would have different priorities with the schools, warehouses, and the rest. It is therefore important to determine the most critical buns functions that must be taken into consideration in the event of adverse conditions. One of the most important business function is the supply chain value when an organizations faced with an adverse conditions, it is important to ensure that the organization’s supply chain function are reinstated immediately to avoid losing the customers an help all the stakeholders drive their business needs (Baker, 2012, pp. 36-40; Barry, 2012, pp. 36-38).
2. Scope Of Business Continuity Planning
Business continuity/operations plan ensure that
2.1Critical Business Functions must be Identified and Prioritized
A sound business continuity plan must detail all the critical functions, identify them, and prioritizes the functions. The entire business inventory must be recorded and automated in advance and these records must be accurate. A function can be critical to businesses if it helps the organization maintain its brand image, market share, or may lead to product failure in the event of loss. Any business function that might have legal or regulatory consequence must be given priority because these will be highly impacted if the business operations cannot be performed after a disaster (Whitworth, 2006, pp. 40-63).
2.2Recovery Time Objectives Have Been Determined For Critical Assets
The organization must also set the minimum recovery time for the critical assets. All organization prefers a downtime of less than 2 hours beyond which all the business functions will be adversely impacted. The best example of an organization with the best recovery time objectives (RTO) is military because they are ready to résumé their operations within a very short time. When connected to the revenue streams the RTO represents the maximum time that the facility, person, processor technology is unavailable or delayed until revenue is seriously impacted. Many organizations can easily extend their recovery time by ensuring that they create alternative pathways or processes that can be followed while the business is still down. For example, SAS has created developed a platform that many organizations are currently using to outsource their software development. Additionally, many organizations such as GE are currently subcontracting. However, the alternative workaround processes should be cost effective and time saving. The organization must estimate the RTO for all processes and applications in order to optimize its loss of functionality and or reduced functionalities. The RTO should be defined and estimated with the following in mind:
People (employees, contractors, consumers, approvers, etc UMUC. 2011)
Process (formulas, recipes, manufacturing methods, function "run books," etc.)
Plant (buildings, capital equipment, warehouses, transportation vehicles, etc.) and
Technology (computers, telephones, fax machines, copiers, measuring equipment, etc.)
2.3 Establish Recovery Point Objectives for Critical Applications
The recovery point objectives refer to the level of tolerance an organization can allow. The tolerance for loss must be determined. The RPO must also allow for effective filing a document archiving and this is why the filing procedures must be defined to help guide the recovery process without which the critical transaction records are likely to get lost. Considering the current state of technological advancement, it is healthy tom argue that critical data files can easily be maintained and synchronized in secure locations especially in the private clauds. This makes it easy for organization to realize a zero RPO (Balaouras, 2009).
2.4 Conduct a Comprehensive Risk Assessment on Critical Facilities
All the critical facilities must also be analyzed and a comprehensive risk assessment. In as much as the loss of critical facilities can be mitigated, it is important to note that the coast of mitigation is very high. Any organization that aims to minimize risk must ensure that they conduct thorough risk assessments. All organization must lilts all the possible risks that the organization is likely to be faced with, including the possible potential impact these risks have on the organization. The impact either may be a total loss, or may result into a significant loss of the organizations functionality. In this case, risk management can therefore be seen as a failover plan for an organization should an adverse event occur, an organization should test its disaster recovery plans (Totty, 2009)
2.5 Define A Clear Succession Plans For The Key Employees Or Consultants
The most important employee in an organization is manager. These people are important to the smooth running of an organization. Therefore, if an organization is faced with the demise of these key personal, there should be succession plans in place. The best succession planning policy is it considers replacement from within. These succession plans have added advantage to the company as the employees are given a clear way to manage their career prospects. This also promise productivity and eliminates employee takeovers (Cerullo, & Cerullo, 2004, pp. 70-78).
6. Ensure that a Technology Backup Strategy Exists and Is Regularly Tested
While many businesses confuse I/T Disaster Recovery Planning with full business recovery planning, the organization must ensure that its IT recovery plan is separated from the entire business recovery planning because it has to provide in-depth and determent specific recovery procedures. Never the less, the procedures must ensure that the company’s data privacy and integrity are given priority. Many organizations prefer high performance, high capability systems for disaster recovery (Slater, 2012; Swanson, et al, 2010)
2.6 Define Technology Domains
Technology can be used to effectively create a domain structure that enhances the ability to consolidate resources with similar requirements for Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability. Technical infrastructure and advanced processes can be applied at the domain group level, saving considerable costs and substantially reducing complexity.
Most business units cannot justify the expense associated with providing a continuous availability strategy, rigorous monitoring or enabling strong authentication techniques. When several business units share the benefits and costs however, the expense can be more easily justified (On Windows, 2006; Rawlings, 2013; Rucks, et al, 2011).
Damage assessment and recovery planning can frequently be streamlined if the resources most sensitive to delay or disruption can be quickly identified, salvaged and restored. Potential lost revenue is generally reduced when critical business operations are restored more quickly.
2.7 Capacity Planning For Increased Demand
Business Continuity Planning is not exclusively for the restoration of processes after a disaster or disruptive event. Successfully executing an effective plan can also provide considerable benefits including increased market share. Like the old joke about the two people in the jungle trying to outrun the tiger, Business Continuity Planning is the ability to respond more quickly and more successfully than competitors to gain a competitive advantage are. All of organizations are able to recover from a disruptive event . All of them also could have recovered more quickly and more easily if they had done something just a bit differently. As shown in the graphic, being prepared gives you the advantage of getting "back in business" sooner than your competitors do (Lam, 2002, pp. 19-25).
3. Planning Steps
Step One – Organize The Project
The first step is to organize the project by appointing a project coordinator who determines the scope and assumptions. The second step is to draft the plan, the task and the assignment for each task
Step Two – Conduct Business Impact Analysis
At this time, it is important to conduct the business impact analysis by identifying the processes, functions and system in any organization. Then the respective departmental heads are interviewed and the results of the interview analyzed to determine all the critical processed and business application. Finally, it is important to prepare an impact analysis of any possible interruption on the critical business systems after that, the critical systems are ranked (Geer, 2012, pp.16-18).
Step Three – Conduct Risk Assessment
Risk assessment is an integrated process, which all analyze the critical systems to determine if this system can be, sever disrupted and document the acceptability of risks. The critical activities are reviewed, the backup system is also reviewed and any form of vulnerability analyzed. After that, the probability of system failure is documented, and then a risk and security analysis is done. Documenting security is a major step in risk assessment.
Step Four – Develop Strategic Outline for Recovery (analyze Critical System Processing Requirements for Recovery)
the fourth step is to assemble all the departments, and analyze their contingent plans taking into consideration the heavy processing days, the volume of transactions, and the processing durations. The system use, frequency, runtime, and throughput are also analyzed. The person who supports the functions is also identified to enable faster connection while at the same time documenting unit strategy during recovery (conceptually how will the unit function?)
Step Five – Identify Onsite And Offsite Backup Recovery Procedures, And Select Alternate Facility
After identifying the planning team, it is also important to identify the onsite and offsite back recovery procedures that must be followed. This is because in most occasions the organization may be forced to operate offsite if the offices are destroyed. This includes reviewing the code of conduct, processes and all the documents that must be secured first (Kirvan, 2009,
Step Seven – Develop Recovery Plan
at this step, the recovery plan is developed by first developing a simple plan detailing all the objectives, the assumptions under considerations and the criteria for invoking the plan. This will also include;
the procedures for asssessign and declaring disdaster
the procedures for notifying all units and officials
The oprocesurdes for alerting all other users
In addition, the procedures for notifying the staff, and the alternative locations to initiate offsite operations.
The evacuation procedures
The document will also delineate the roles and responsibility of each person in the event of the disaster, the staffing procedures, and the transportation processes
Finally, it must also include the procedures that will be followed while in contingency mode in the event of the disaster
Step Eight – Test The Plan
The plan is then tested to determine its effectiveness. The plan is also tested to determine gaps in the recovery plan. The first step involves developing the test strategy, then test the recovery plan and make necessary modification if need be.
Step Nine – Plan Maintenance And Periodic Audit To Maintain The Plan
Periodic audit of the plan is important as it takes into considerations any changes in the business environment, the inventory as well as personal. New threats may also be identified and new procedures developed to handle the increasing threats. This periodic audit helps in developing new recovery plans and distributing the plans to relevant authorities or personnel in the organization (Karim, 2011, pp. 183-192).
4. Disaster Recovery Options
On-site DR evolution
In-house resources available
Have effective dry plan
Ongoing funding is measureable and available making the program successful.
The organization can dedicate proper resources to the program
The organization can ensure a consistent testing and exercise regime
The organization can keep focus for continuous improvement on the program.
Trucking in DR(mobile disaster recovery )
Outsourced and cloud-based DR options
5.1 Scheduled Date And Time Of Test
Finish Date / Time
What to test
What to test /assets
Where to test
Frequency of tests of full scale test
Onsite and offsite
Onsite and offsite
Onsite and offsite
Onsite and offsite
Onsite and offsite
Onsite and offsite
Onsite and offsite
5.2 Type Of Test, Frequency, Duration And Related Cost
Test Being Conducted
Participants, and recovery plans
Fire drill, radio test, Tornado, Earthquake, system
Communication and brainstorming
Communication and resource allocation
Full Scale Test
System, personal , resources, and operations
Business contingency and continuity pans are very important to all organizations especially in this age of technology where disaster is common. Many organization suffer from system crash, some experience low throughput, while others are faced with cyber attacks. In the event of these disasters, organization should be able to resume their operation within the shortest time. The recovery time objectives should be clear and so are the recovery point objectives. The organizations should also suffer minimum loss due to such disaster. Never themes, even with a proper failsafe, it is important to conduct periodic audit to ensure that the organization’s recovery plan is up-to-date with the changes in the organization
Process descriptions checklist
Minimum processing requirements
Location of vital records
Categories for vital records
In the recovery site
In the unit
Used in recovery
Used in production
Logical drawings of communication and data networks in the unit
Logical drawings of communication and data networks during recovery
Communication needs –
In the recovery site
Resource plan for operating in contingency mode
Criteria for returning to normal operating mode
Procedures for returning to normal operating mode
Procedures for recovering lost or damaged data
Testing and Training
Periodic Document Maintenance
Review action plans
Review recovery teams
Review team activities
Baker, N. (2012). Enterprisewide Business Continuity. (Cover story). Internal Auditor, 69(3), 36-40.
Barry, C. (2012). Backup plans. Multichannel Merchant, 8(5), 36-38.
Balaouras, S. (2009). Businesses take BC planning more seriously. (2009). For Security & Risk Professionals.
Cerullo, V., & Cerullo, M. J. (2004). Business continuity planning: a comprehensive approach. Information Systems Management, 21(3), 70-78.
Geer, D. (2012). Are You Really Ready for Disaster? Three exercises for testing your business continuity plans. CSO Magazine, 11(8), 16-18.
Karim, A. (2011). Business Disaster Preparedness: An Empirical Study for measuring the Factors of Business Continuity to face Business Disaster. International Journal of Business & Social Science, 2(18), 183-192.
Kirvan, P. (2009, July). Using a business impact analysis (BIA) template: A free BIA template and guide. TechTarget: SearchDisasterRecovery. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://searchdisasterrecovery.techtarget.com/feature/Using-a-business-impact-analysis-BIA-template-A-free-BIA-template-and-guide.
Lam, W. (2002). Ensuring business continuity. IT professional, 4(3), 19-25.
On Windows. (2006, March 23). Half of us businesses lack continuity plan. On Windows Magazine, Retrieved from http://www.onwindows.com/Articles/Half-of-US-businesses-lack-continuity-plan/2063/Default.aspx
Rawlings, P. (2013). SEC’s Aguilar Pushes Continuity Plan Testing. Compliance Reporter, 25.
Rucks, A., Ginter, P., Duncan, W., & Lesinger, C. (2011). A Continuity of Operations Planning Template: Translating Public Policy into an Effective Plan. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 8(1).
Slater, D. (2012, December 13). Business continuity and disaster recovery planning: The basics. Retrieved from http://www.csoonline.com/article/204450/business-continuity-and-disaster-recovery-planning-the-basics?page=1
Swanson, M., Bowen, P., Phillips, A., Gallup, D., & Lynes, D. (2010, November 11). Retrieved from website: http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-34-rev1/sp800-34-rev1_errata-Nov11-2010.pdf
Totty, P. (2009). Business Continuity: Test and Verify. Credit Union Magazine, 75(12), 46.
UMUC. (2011). Module 11: Service Restoration and Business Continuity. Retrieved from http://tychousa.umuc.edu/
Whitworth, P. M. (2006). Continuity of Operations Plans: Maintaining Essential Agency Functions When Disaster Strikes. Journal of Park & Recreation Administration, 24(4), 40-63.
Wold, G. H. (2006). Disaster recovery planning process. Disaster Recovery Journal, 5(1).
Tracy Stourac, (2014). Wheels, hubs and spokes: incorporating a scorecard into a business continuity programme. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning 2014, 7 (3): 260-9
 Facilities manager, IT tech, HR manager, senior management, brand management, third-party support and a sampling of critical clients.