“Smart” machines cannot replace humans?
Over the last four decades, researchers, and engineers have been trying to develop super computers with the hope that one day they will be more intelligent to take over human factor in production. However, despite the progress in terms of intelligent, companies have not been able to fully deeply the smart machines in their factors to help in maximizing production. Additionally, there have been discourses on the possible impact of smart machines on employment with the most common argument that smart machines can replace humans. In the light of the above, this paper seeks to argue that smart machines cannot replace human
Advantages and disadvantages of smart machines
Advantages of having smart machines
Maximize production/ mass production. Most companies in Japan can now manufacture vehicles round the clock with only few human supervisors. Machines are production vehicles parts with high mathematical precision and this has not been achieved by human which are susceptible to injuries. Human being cannot work round the clock without requesting for a pay rise
-They are also efficient- machines are very efficient when in terms of resource wastage. Machines rarely waste time as their downtime can be maximized round the clock. Additionally, waste due to lack of prevision can also be highly minimized. Therefore, in order to maximize production, it is prudent to employ more smart machines. Additionally, the cost of production can be reduced by over 50% over 5 years. For example, with only few supervisors manning several smart machines, it is easy to layoff the other unproductive employees. This way, the payroll cost will fall significantly.
-They are self replicating (kinematically) – advanced smart machines are evolving and thus their ability to self replicate. The future research may make them more advanced that that might supersede human beings. This improves the chances of the smart machines replacing humans, there are chances the smart machines will replace human in the near future if the trend or pace of advancement is maintained (De Groote 12-18). With the daily research, it will be easy for the federal government to allow the companies to employ more smart machines to improve the overall productivity of companies thereby maximizing their production capacity. A scenario is presented in which the smart machines have improved it terms of command execution. The possible future here is that the smart machines will become more intelligent, efficient and more productive. Therefore, through research and legislation, many companies are soon employing smart machines to take over the low paying jobs that are considered labor intensive.
Disadvantages of smart machines
They are expensive in the short run and can only be bought by the rich people. Most smart machines cost billions of shillings and this is mainly dependent on the capabilities of the smart machines, advanced smart machines might cost much more that the average companies can pay. Therefore, smart machines will only be purchased, develop more used specific companies in different niches. In addition to being expensive, it would be difficult for companies to employ the smart machines to employ both the human being and the smart machines at the same time. This means that the humans being would be laid off for the smart machines to work. The implication of such moves that the production costs would be free of
They are a threat to human security now that they are becoming more intelligence. Smart machines can cause harm to human beings. For example while smart machines does not feel pain, their movement, breakdown might cause security breaches especially during system downtime. Additionally, job security is also threatened as companies continue to automate. Many people will lose their jobs. This means that many will lose their jobs but they few that will remain in employment will realize salary increase (Marshall 371-377)
Will The Smart Machines Replace Human Beings?
Machines are used to carry out duties previously carried out by human beings. Most people are replaced at work with machines. From pruning machine to machine part manufacturing. They are increasingly replacing human in almost all industries. People should start rethinks their job security as machines are likely to take over more jobs especially the routine processes are currently being automated. For example, many people are left jobless as only one supervisor can work with ten smart machines. Meaning both supervisors and line workers are looking their jobs.
Smart machines can deliver finer analysis in some ways human cannot. That is why law firms are using smart machines. Smart machines are preferred because they can work for longer hours without exhausting or evolved psychological predispositions. They can intelligently secure properties round the clock and that cannot be done by human being. Some machines are self driving and will not nee human intermission to operate. Machines can also work under very extreme conditions that human beings cannot. For example during disasters, in war zones, in very tinny spaces, and in
So Can They Replace Human Beings
No, smart machines or smart machines cannot completely replace humans as time goes by, most of the production companies are increasingly becoming labor intensive. This mean that while the companies can afford the smart machines, they will not be an ought to provide all the lab pour force needed. Smart machines are very expensive for the average companies. With the low earning from the smart machines most companies will find that it takes long for them to break even. The initial capital required to purchase and install a smart machine is very high meaning that companies have to consider the tradeoff between cost and benefits. The cost benefit analysis will provide the smart machines can only be cheaper in the long run, but not in the medium term or short term. Only the labor intensive low paying jobs will take by the smart machines as they are very many, scheduled and labor intensive.
Marshall, (2011).states that sheep are very expensive as the initial investment on robust is very high. In the short run, they are very expensive. Smart machines tend to have a very low return on investments as it will take some companies over four years to break even. Additionally, smart machines need re-calibration, and regular maintenances. They will also be costly to the company in terms of human resources as the company will have to retrain its employees in order to work with the smart machines efficiently. Therefore, whether it is the initial investment or maintenance services, the smart machines are expensive by far compared to the human beings in the short term? This means that companies will have to reconsider their short term plans ((Davidow and Malone n.d)
De Groote argue that the smart machines are not safe to work with; in as much as they can protect the workers; they are still a safety concern (75-79. Smart machines can only be used to solve problems in a deterministic environment where projection can be made with precision. Smart machines cannot think but relies on previous data. They cannot handle new concepts without being reprogrammed. Smart machines still need to be reprogrammed, or supervised. Many smart machines have high capabilities but must be controlled when the system is not deterministic as they cannot make judgment on their own (Ritzer 133-140)
Smart machines do not have finer perceptual distinctions- In as much as machines can execute millions of algorithms per second, they cannot think without outside command. Machine is made to act in a linear manner or using inferences or correlate to determine the link between two variables. Cognitive smart machines still fails in perceptual distinction. This means that unless further research is conducted, smart machines or smart machines are not likely to replace human completely (Davidow and Malone n.d)
Machines may not be easy to control once they are out of control. At times, the machines may go on rampage killing people indiscriminately. Therefore life and death decision cannot be performed accurately by machines. Most machines cannot make ethical judgment especially in areas where children are involved. They cannot distinguish between good and bad, or evil because they are just programmed to do specific duties. It will not be easy for ethical companies to employ smart machines and render far mollies jobless and poor. Even with the corporate greed, it will be difficult to condemn the human beings to penury in exchange for financial wealth (Davidow and Malone n.d)
With the government intention to protect human beings, they will employ a number of regulatory frameworks to protect human’s beings. For example, there will be a number of regulations geared at ensuring that smart machines deployment in industries is highly regulated, this way, employment will be secured. Unemployment is one of the key concerns that every government has. Therefore, by protecting regulating the deployment of smart machines, it would be difficult for the smart machines to replace human beings (Marshall 377).
Smart machines may be becoming more intelligent, and more efficient in ht performance of routine jobs. However, they cannot completely replace human. If the focus of smart machines replacing human is in terms of employment, It is important to note that because of the most routine jobs are already automated, smart machines will replace human in the routine jobs, this mean that there will be mass unemployment in general. structural unemployment is expected n the developed countries where smart machines are affordable, but this does not mean that in the third world countries are safe because most of the routine jobs that are currently being outsourced will be taken by the smart machines in the country of originals of the respective companies. In conclusion, smart machines will replace human in the routine jobs but not the non routine jobs.
Davidow, William H., And Michael S. Malone. ‘What Happens To Society When Robots Replace Workers?’. Harvard Business Review. N.P., 2014. Web. 2 May 2015.
De Groote, Michael. ‘Why The Rise Of Smart Machines Could Terminate Jobs | Deseret News National’. National.deseretnews.com. N.p., 2014. Web. 2 May 2015.
Marshall, Patrick. ‘Artificial Intelligence: Can “Smart” Machines Replace Humans?’. CQ Researcher by CQ Press. N.p., 2011. Web. 2 May 2015.
Ritzer, G. ‘Automating Prosumption: The Decline Of The Prosumer And The Rise Of The Prosuming Machines’. Journal of Consumer Culture (2014): n. pag. Web. 2 May 2015.