Chapter 1: The Study of the Person

  1. One picture (graphic format is not important) that you believe best captures the concepts presented in the chapter.

Website 1

Simply psychology


Description of the website

This site was designed and coded by Saul McLeod. Saul McLeod is a senior lecturer with years of experience in psychology. He teaches some of the leading universities. based on his extensive experience, this website offers a lot of information on psychology, psychoanalysis, personality testing and other relevant topics in psychology

Website 2:Website : Sheffield Hallam University

url :

Description of the website

This website belongs to the higher Education Academy and Sheffield Hallam University.  Sheffield Hallam University is amongst the leading psychology school in the UK. The website has loads of resources, researches, peer reviewed journal as well as other informative articles for psychology research. The website was mainly founded to help s psychology students ace their research as it focus mostly on research methodology. The contents are also ideal for supervisors, dissertations students and researchers. Students can ask question, explore  the demand of dissertation, research on their research methods and learn how to structure their researches

  1. One article summary-

Title: Richard-Devantoy S, Chocard AS, Bouyer-Richard AI, Duflot JP, Lhuillier JP, Gohier B, Garré JB. [Homicide and psychosis: criminological particularities of schizophrenics, paranoiacs and melancholic. A review of 27 expertises’. Encephale. 2008 Sep; 34(4):322-9.

Doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2007.06.006. Epub 2007 Nov 19. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 18922232.

The article topic was Homicide and psychosis: criminological particularities of schizophrenics, paranoiacs and melancholic.

This paper analyzed the relationship between homicides and psychosis. The analysis the topic of psychosis and how it is related to crime. The researchers conducted a prospective study of pathological murders. By selecting and analyzing a sample of 27 murder cases out of total 268 cases over duration of 30 years, the researchers managed to analyze and diagnosed schizophrenia, paranoia, melancholia or hypomania. The other psychologist conditions the researcher intended to analyze include paranoiac delirious disorder, affective disorder.

Typing and comparing the homicides committed by schizophrenic, paranoiac and melancholic persons, the researcher found that the murders committed by people with psychological conditions and mental disorders tend to communicate their attachment, cravings and insecurity. For example, while only 10 of the people murdered were children, the adult’s schizophrenics were mainly alcoholics, who were jobless, ands single. Additionally, the researcher found out that most of the people had history of drug abuse, and violent crime. The paranoid schizophrenics tended to exhibit they hallucination in the way they treated their victims as they persecuted, and sexually abused their victims.

The researcher also found that despite being disorganized, most of the schizophrenics exhibited negative features that make them look less dangerous. On the other hand, the victims of these schizophrenia paranoiacs were the people they knew.  60% of the victims were female members of their families making them either sisters, or wives.

According to the author, the   older male, married men did not have any criminal records and their crimes were fueled by their intuition (77%), jealousy (40%) or prejudicial themes. The other victims were either wives, or husbands or even the neighbors who were suspected of cheating.

While alcohols consumptions was often involved,  alcohol does not play a major role in these behaviors as schizophrenics and paranoiac murderers were known for their emotional tempers while the melancholic’s murderers who were mostly made up of women between 30 and 60 did not take much alcohol. Never the less, out of all these murdered, at least two thirds of these murderers w had psychiatric records involving depression or bipolar disorders as they attempted suicide. The researcher conclude  that the altruism was a more common delirious hem as most of their murders were relatively premeditated as they knew the victims  or their families, but they also committed suicide after murdering their victims. These findings negates  the general feeling that most of the people who killed unknown people in the street were  considered ill because only 16% of  the murders were committed by the mentally ill people. It is therefore healthy to conclude that schizophrenia, paranoia, and melancholic tend to share criminal specifics.

  1. A summary of three to five paragraphs describing why you chose the pictures, Web sites, and articles.

The pictures were chosen for this topic because it best explains the main topic under study, for example, the picture explained clearly the relationship between age and mental capacity. For example, most of the schizophrenics, and melancholy were past 30 years and were either unmarried or single. Most of these people were also alcoholics making the violent behaviors more of insecurity problems. The websites were used because they provided adequate information about psychology and psychoanalysis. The websites also taught about Psychology, Theories of Development- Piaget’s Cognitive Theory, Bowlby’s Attachment Theory, Zone of Proximal Developmental, Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory, and Psychology Perspectives such as behaviorist perspective, psychodynamic perspective, humanism, cognitive psychology, and biological psychology

Chapter Title Selected – chapter 2 : Clues to personality

Website #1 Title & Link – http://personality

The website mainly specializes in psychological tests and more specifically the personality tests. The site is used to educate the public about the personality test, as well as their uses and interpretations. The site also teaches how to  collect research data, analyze and report

Website #2 Title & Link: title  Psych Central


Psychcentral is one of the leading independent mental health special networks.  The website was developed by professional and run by professionals. The website offers reliable and trusted information on psychology. With over 6 million subscribers, the website is both a trusted source of information to students and professionals alike.

Picture Representing Chapter:

Full Article Citation in APA Format and doi link:

Wang Y, Zhu X, Cai L, Wang Q, Wang M, Yi J, Yao S. (2013). Screening cluster A and cluster B personality disorders in Chinese high school students. BMC Psychiatry. Apr 17; 13:116. Doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-116. PubMed PMID: 23594882; PubMed

Central PMCID: PMC3639232.

Article Summary

This study was conducted against the backdrop of increasing cases of personality disorder in Chinese high school. The researchers aimed at analyzing the causes and risks factors in increasing personality disorders The researchers argued that personality disorders will increase the risk of violence and suicide as well as the risk of elevated PD traits in later adulthood. The main research objective was to analyze the prevalence of cluster A, and B personality disorder strains and their relationship to the demographics variables.

The research method

The researchers conduct a prospective study using a cohort of 3552 student from eight different highs schools in China. The students were allowed to complete the personality diagnostic questionnaire (PDQ-4+) in addition to the McArthus scale of subjective social status youth version (SSSy) questionnaire.

The researchers found out that   boys were at higher risk of personality disorders such as paranoia, schizotypal, antisocial, as well as narcissistic PDS as compared to the ladies. On the other hand, it was interesting to note that most of freshmen were at higher risk of PD as compared to the older students. Additionally, the sophomores also scored highly than the juniors.

Additionally, the researchers found that there is a significant relationship between the types of parenthood and the psychological condition as well as personality because most of the students from single parent households tended to score higher than those from double parent households when it comes to schizotypal and antisocial behaviors. On the other hand, those students whose parents remarried scored higher than the other students on border line and antisocial personality disorder. Those students who scored higher in the borderline and schizoid personality disorder tend to have a low perception of social status in the society ladder while those who scored lower on histrionic PD had a higher perspective of the perceived status on schizoid. Finally, the researchers found that the students who had a low subjective social statute in the school community ladder also scored higher scores within those with the high perceived status on the paranoid, schizoid, borderline and antisocial PD despite scoring lower on the histrionic PD.

The study came to a conclusion when the researcher found out that gender, grade, family structure as well as the subjective social status tend to affect the development of personality disorder. The researchers also recommended that the future researches should be longitudinal studies to help in fully outlining the effect of demographic variables and personality disorder prevalence amongst the adolescents.

3-5 Paragraph Summary

The picture was chosen because it best explains the personal space, and how each personal spaces especially the arrangement of things within the personal boundaries portray one’s behavior, and personality. In particular, personality is bet explained by how people react when their personal space is violated. Consciousness, openness to experience, agreeableness, extraversion, neuroticism, perfectionism and the rest are best exhibited by examining a person in his personal space. The website was chosen because it offers in-depth and balanced research on personality and personality trait.

Clues To Personality Can Be From The Data Gathered, There Are S-Data, L-Data, B-Data, And I-data. All these data can be used to determine one’s personality as and when required… however, all these data have their advantages and limitations.

The articles were chosen specifically because it explains properly the personality traits of the criminals.  The paper best explain the relationship between personality disorders and psychology.  From the research, one can identify the differences between various forms of personality disorders. Such as Antisocial Personality Disorder, Avoidant Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder, Histrionic Personality Disorder, Personality Disorder, Narcissistic Personality Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, Paranoid Personality Disorder, Schizoid Personality Disorder and Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Chapter Title Selected – chapter 10- Basics of psychoanalysis

Picture Representing Chapter

Website #1 Title & Link

Description of Website

The website provides a rich introduction to Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis and how psychoanalysis can be used to understand personalities. The website bases the principals of psychoanalysis is theory on the study of man and further develops the theory then explains theory. The theory is chosen because it is comprehensive, serendipitous, and has stood the test f time.

The website explores the original of psychoanalysis, the principles of Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis,  and  shows how to evaluate the criticisms of psychoanalysis and the strength and weaknesses of psychoanalysis

Website #2 Title & Link

The second website is called psychology today. The website is mainly devoted to analyzing psychology from the educational perspective. The website has over 750 contributors and researchers making it an authority website on the subject. The website comprehensively analysis’s the basic tenets of psychoanalysis such as inherited constitution of personality, experiences curing childhood development. The paper also analyses the effect f human attitude, mannerism, experiences and through processes in their adult life and how they drive irrational and rational drives.

The website argues that irrational drives are unconscious and the psychological resistances and defense mechanism. The website also reports that there are conflicts between one’s conscious and unconscious and these conflicts lead to manifest ion the form of mental as well as emotional disturbances such as neurosis, anxiety and depression. Therefore the only way to bring the conflict to an end is by eliminating  the unconscious material and bringing the material into someone’s conscious mind and this is the work  of therapy therapeutic intervention

Full Article Citation in APA Format and doi link

Leichsenring F, &, Leibing E, (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jul; 160(7):1223-32.

Article Summary

The paper focuses on various techniques of psychotherapeutic treatments of psychiatric disorders. The aims of the study was to  analyze the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy when treating  personality disorder

The method

The researcher reviewed various psychodynamic therapy and cognitive therapy studies published between 1974 and 2001.  Most of the studies used standardize methods to diagnose personality disorders, and applied valid and reliable instruments. All the studies reviewed must have reported data allowing the calculation of within group’s effect sizes and or assessment of personality disorder recovery dates. The researchers reviewed 14 researches of psychodynamic therapy and 11 studies of cognitive behavior therapy.

The researchers found out that psychodynamic gather yield 1.46 effect sizes which is relatively larger. Self report measures effect size was 1.08and observer rated measures scores was 1.79. However the cognitive behavior therapy effect size scores were lower as they were 1.00, and 1.20, 0.87 respectively. Therefore, for effective  personality disorders treatment, it is important to use the  psychodynamic therapy as the effect sizes shows that it is both long term and effective when it come ms to treating  personality

3-5 Paragraph Summaries:

The image above was chosen because it demonstrates the key ideas of psychoanalysis. For example, closer analysis can provide a hint on the psychic determinism because every happening can be attributed to specific cause despite the fact that the casus cannot be identified. Therefore, if one thinks of something, that though  has specific causes even though the thought  processes being unconscious.

On the other hand, the website indicate that   psychoanalysis is premised upon the internal structure of the mind such that Ego, Id, and superego. The website teaches that there must be a conflict and comprise when it comes to internal structures. The psychic conflicts are as a result of the division of the mind into independent parts. While the psychic conflict is not dramatic, there must often by comprise formation and the co morose is what the mind thins and the body does.

Additionally, the website also taught about the mental energy which is also referred to as the psychic energy which is relatively fixed in supply. It uses the theory of the mental energy to demonstrate how psychoanalysis can be used to control the mental or psychic energy. For example, the website teaches that psychoanalysis can help in freeing up psychic energy.

Chapter 7: using personality traits to understand behavior

Website 1:

This website is one of the networked websites that host and published scientific studies. One of the most important researches on this website is the use personality traits to study adult behaviors. The website has published a paper from there journal  of social  psychology  and personality science that states that  a study of 2400ethnically diverse school population  indicates that traits such as verbally fluent, adaptable, impulsive and self-minimizing are stable in the early life span of an  individual but changes over time

Website 2:

This website analyses the bid give personality traitors. It specifically looks at openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism and has a test and a questionnaire that can be used to determine one’s personality.

Summary of chapter:

According to the site child personality taints can be used to predict their adult’s behaviors. This chapter is based on the understanding  the personality traits can be used to understand one’s behaviors, while it is an extension of the topic, it is clear that  there are many traits approaches that can be used to understand one’s behaviors. For example, chapter starts with the single trait approach. Single trait appearance can be used to predict behaviors, increase understanding of factors underlying the behaviors and understand how to manage or control some behaviors. The single trait approach focuses on one specific trait at atrium and analyses its consequences and impact on one’s behaviors. The single trait approach has been used to analyze traits such as conscientiousness,” “self-monitoring,” and “narcissism.

On the other hand, the chapter also analyses many traits approaches t and how it can be used t analyze the relationship between specific behaviors and traits. It did snot only look at one trait ant a time but analyses the consequences of a number of traits on one’s behaviors. For example, California Q-set is used to assess almost ten different personality traits at a time, while the Q-sort was useful in exploring  foundation of gratification delay, personality disorders associated with drug use, depression as well as political ideology. Finally, the essential trait approaches to understanding personality. For example the approach is used to identify only a few traits at a time that are considered outstanding. The most commonly used are the key five traits such as extraversion,” “neuroticism,” “conscientiousness,” “agreeableness,” and “openness.

The chapter also analyses the typological approaches to personality which are mainly categorized int three via- well adjusted, maladjusted over controlled as well as maladjusted over controlled. These typological approaches to personality help in predicting the adult behaviors.

Finally, the chapter also analyses the personality development over one’s life span. For example, the chapter argues that personality development tends to analyze the source or original of personality and the way it changes over one’s life from a=childhood to adulthood. The paper argues that individual differences in personality are very stable over one’s life and tend to become more stable as one grows older. However, the means level of personality tend to increase over times and the most noticeable ones include conscientiousness as visible decreases in neurotism

Article :  C. S. Nave, R. A. Sherman, D. C. Funder, S. E. Hampson, L. R. Goldberg. On the Contextual Independence of Personality: Teachers’ Assessments Predict Directly Observed Behavior After Four Decades. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2010; DOI: 10.1177/1948550610370717

Summary of the article :

This paper looks at the main factors that contribute to the behaviors of people at adulthood. For example, by looking at the personality traits of various people during child hood and then analyzing their behaviors during adulthood one can easily find that there is a strong positive significant relationship between childhood personality traits and adulthood behaviors.  I n this research, the researchers identified four main personality attributes and these included verbally fluent, adaptable self minimizing as well as impulsive.

For example, the research found that the youngest that were verbally fluent were defined as unrestrained talkative as they grew into adults. They tended to have displayed their interest in intellectual matters u such as law or scholarship/ those who had verbal problems in childhood tended to have had problems with interpersonal relationship as they could easily give up when face d with problem. On the other hand, those children who rated as adaptable were able to cope easily with their problems in adulthood as they could interact and integrate easily with other people. However, their adulthood was filled with regrets and was known to say negative things about themselves.

The people who were considered improve in their adulthood tended to speak loudly during childhood. The children also displayed number of interest and were talkative. However, for those who were rated as self-minimizing were humble on growing up. It is also important to note that this indicates the effect of personality traits on people’s behavior in adult hood.  Personality traits tended to become more stable as people, grow up. Personality is part of human being as tit resides in them, and is part of their biology. In as much as life event can influence one future behavior, their personality can help in understanding their future behaviors.

Why the pictures

The pictures were chosen because they explicitly [explain what happen between childhood and adulthood. For example, as one grow up, they undergo a lot of problems but the overall stability of personality traits tends to explain how their future will be.  The websites also explain how ones childhood can be used to predict how a person’s childhood was.  Both the website and the images reinforce the relationship between personality and behaviors.


Richard-Devantoy S, Chocard AS, Bouyer-Richard AI, Duflot JP, Lhuillier JP, Gohier B, Garré JB. [Homicide and psychosis: criminological particularities of schizophrenics, paranoiacs and melancholic. A review of 27 expertises’. Encephale. 2008 Sep; 34(4):322-9.

Wang Y, Zhu X, Cai L, Wang Q, Wang M, Yi J, Yao S. (2013). Screening cluster A and cluster B personality disorders in Chinese high school students. BMC Psychiatry. Apr 17; 13:116. Doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-116. PubMed PMID: 23594882; PubMed

Leichsenring F, &, Leibing E, (2003). The effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of personality disorders: a meta-analysis. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jul; 160(7):1223-32.

  1. S. Nave, A. Sherman, D. Funder, S. Hampson, L. ., (2010). Goldberg. On the Contextual Independence of Personality: Teachers’ Assessments Predict Directly Observed Behavior After Four Decades. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2010; DOI: 10.1177/1948550610370717

Personal reflection

Before taking this course, I had always assumed that inherited everything I have including my personality and behaviors from my parents. I never thought that my neighborhood could influence how I behave, interact, t and communicate with people. I never thought that it would affect my attitudes towards other people. I knew that I hated other races because they were inferior. However, I always had this feeling because my mother had a natural dislike for other people.  Little did know that it is the prejudice, and bias my mother had often demonstrated that influenced my attitude towards these persons. Coming to town taught me one thing, I learned that I can change how I perceive people and interact with them.

Living in a culturally diverse city has exposed me to different cultures and different person(s). I have come to understand people for what they are at face value, and for what they stand for deep inside. I have to come to understand people from different perspectives because I know how to analyze people from the data I can gather. Taking this course has introduced me to many facets of personalities and personality’s trait. However, it is not the exposure that I feel great full for but the   experience and the challenges. It became apparent to me that personality psychology is a multi-thronged approach to understanding people. The course introduced me to a number of approaches to personify analysis. I found the trait approach to understanding people. Personality is very intriguing as compared to the biological and phenomenological approach. The conceptualization of individual differences as well as measurement of individual differences is essential. I also leaner that the negativity bias can influence how one conceptualizes individual differences. I have also come to understand the overall negativity bias in the determination of leaders or activities, or even their political predisposition.

Studying people can help in learning the people, and thus is the use of the psychoanalytic approach to understanding the unconscious mind and the internal mental conflict. Learning how to bring the two to balance is very important as it can help in overcoming a lot of interpersonal problems. This chapter mainly got my attention because I still cannot understand how people can understand personal problem and there is not burden. Last week while taking a walk, I came to realize that the learning and cognitive approach t learning are very important as it relies on behaviors, and social learning theory that tends to explain the fact that learning can only take place in a social, context. While I understood that learning as a cognitive process, I didn’t think that it could only take place I n a social content, but then I realized that we are shaped out own experience without motor reproduction or direct reinforcement. I also realized that one can construct a coherent picture of an individual and connect it with the major psychological processes. It is also easy to investigate an individual’s psychological differences, the human nature as well as any psychological similarity between two people. It is at this stage that I learnt the dynamic nature of personality because it necessarily means that personality is made up of a set of characteristics that a person possess and can uniquely influence his environment, emotional behaviors, as well as motivations.

The course also challenged me theologically because I came to learn that there are lot f things we as Christians assume to be true, but does not have any proper explanation. In particular I was challenged by the belief that being a Christian makes one a better person, morally upright, and a good parent. This is utterly untrue as I realized that all our behaviors and attitudes as adults were shaped by our childhood experience. It can be very interesting to note that most of the people who  were essentially quite during their childhood become very dangerous adults  while those adults with troubled  childhood end up becoming either bad or worse criminals in adulthood. This makes me question the parenting styles because considering the current parent styles, at least 50% of today youths will be criminals when they get older. However, trait also tends to stabilize over times   such that as people get older their traits become more established and stable. Tarts can also influence a person’s behavior. In the past one year, I came to realize that traits are completely different between individuals. No two people can have same personality trait. This new realization has helped to analyze and understand my classmates, friend, and relatives as well and everyone I know. I have come to appreciate personal space and also respect other people’s persona space.

This means that instead of focus in on developing the grownups, our focus should be on developing the children before they grow up. After the course, I just wanted to ask myself if it is true that biological factors affect people’s personalities. It is difficult to determine how my father’s personality traits can define mine because irrespective of the father’s influence, it is still difficult to determine how I became so different from my father. Understanding personality has helped me become a good person to befriend, and meet. I have learned how to motivate people. I have learned how to use data to analyze people’s dispositions because these dispositions are basic to people’s personality. In as much as I may share common traits with other people, I have come to learn that there are a lot of things I can identify with. Common traits are not common per se because people may have one culture but their degree of adherence to such cultures may differ.

Using data to analyze and understands personality has enabled to me precisely determine what a person can do in a given situation. Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are all five dimensions of personality, these dimensions are also called the big five as they define and form the biggest part of the 16 traits. Cognitive psychologists attempt to create rules and explanations of human behavior and eventually generalize them to everyone’s behavior. The Humanistic Approach opposes this, taking into account individual differences that make us each behave differently. The cognitive approach attempts to apply a scientific approach to human behavior, which is reductionist in that it doesn’t necessarily take into account such differences. However, popular case studies of individual behavior such as HM have lead cognitive psychology to take into account idiosyncrasies of our behavior. On the other hand, cognitive psychology acknowledges the thought process that goes into our behavior, and the different moods that we experience that can impact the way we respond to circumstances.

From my studies I have come to learn that human behaviors can only be explained using scientific processes such as the way it corresponds to specific times of external stimuli. Human being can control his behaviors by controlling has thought processes and not controlling the genetic factors. The fact that people are rather unpredictable as their beavers is hinged on the situation makes them the most difficult to understand. However, being able to determine a person’s personality makes it easy to strategize how to interact with the people.

It is quite common to mind two more three people fighting over communal resources. But if one understand the relationship between personality, situating and behaviors, it is easy to overcome all personal differences. Personality assessment has consequences such that when you judge somebody, it has a lasting effect on the person’s personality Accuracy of personality judgment is important without which, the kind of judgment can damage the person completely. While there are opportunities, there is also expectation that everyone holds.

In conclusion, I would like to say that in as much as the lessons learned in this course do not mesh up with my pastry experiences; they mesh with my past readings. There is not major contradiction between the ideas I learned in this course and the once I had read before in my early psychology classes


Cacioppo J, Cacioppo S,&, Gollan J, (2014).  The negativity bias: conceptualization,

quantification, and individual differences. Behav Brain Sci. Jun;37(3):309-10. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X13002537.


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