Reporting from SPSS Output

R

Table of Contents

Reporting from SPSS Output 1

Descriptive statistics of the population sampled. 2

Analysis of the community in terms of Health in general 2

Very Good health. 2

Good health. 3

Fair health. 3

Bad health. 4

Very bad health. 4

General health. 5

General health status. 5

Educational qualification. 6

Discussion. 6

The symmetric difference. 7

Descriptive statistics of the population sampled

The demographics is of the respondents indicates clear picture of cultural diversity considering the ethnicity of the population. There are all pure and mixed races in the   sampled population and this indicates that the sample was drawn from an up market area where the white and British are the most dominant society. This probably indicates a Canadian community. From the frequency distribution table, the mean age of the sample population is 39.9 (Mean = 39.9). On the other hand, the proportion of the male respondent in the sample population 48.2%, while female accounted for 51.8%. This is to indicate that in entirety, the female population is higher than that other male. On the other hand, out of the population, the whiten British accounted for over 88.4%, while  the proportion of any other white background was 3%, while mixed white and black  Caribbean was only 0.5%. On the other hand, the proportion of the mixed white and black African was 0.2%, while mixed white and Asian was 0.3%, and mixed any other background was 0.2%. Asian or Asian British Indian was 1.6%, while Asian or Asian British Pakistani was 1.3%. The Asian or Asian British Bangladeshi 0.2% and British or black British Caribbean was 1%. On the other hand, the black or black British black African was 1.5%, and the Chinese 0.2%

Analysis of the community in terms of Health in general

Very Good health

While a higher percentage of male 21.6% has no qualification, the percentage of male with higher education was higher than that of women (439.9% to 42.2%). On the other hand, a higher percentage of male in higher education with very good health than that of women in higher education as the percentage was 42.9% against 42.2%. On the other hand, the proportion of men to women in intermediate education with good heath 38% against 35.9% this means that out of the entire population of male to female in intermediate education, many men had better health than women. On the other hand, k, the proportion of men to women with some academic qualification was also skewed towards men with men 390.5% against women 29.7%. This means that generally, men have better health than women do and the proportion of men to women with very good health is higher than that of women irrespective of their academic qualification.

Good health

While the proportion of male to female with very good health varied slightly, it is quite interesting  that the proportion of male to female with god health is also similarly skewed,. For example, those with the highest qualification but with god health varied between genders. Male graduates with higher education were 43.2%, while the female population with the same qualification   and health status was 42.3%. However, the proportion of the female population with intermediate education but with good health was higher than that of the male population with intermediate education. For example, while the male were only 44.8%, the female population was 46.3%. This was the same case with the population of male to female with good health but with some qualification because the female population was higher 42.3% against the male population 40.2%. Finally, the percentage of female with no qualification at all but with good health was higher than that of the male population at female (40.4%) against male (38.6%).

Fair health

Generally, the female population had fair health than the female population. For example, the research indicated that out of the population sampled in high school, a higher percentage of the female population (12%)  with higher education had fair health as compared to the male population at 11.6%. on the other hand, the proportion of male to female with fair health but with intermediate education was skewed towards the female. For example, a larger portion of female to make are having intermediate education but with fair health at 14.1% to 13.2% respectively.  According tit her research result, the population had a larger percentage of female (27.4%) without qualification as compared to that of the male population (26.7%). It is however, very interesting to note that the number of male with some qualification but with fair health is higher than that of the female population with some qualification built with fair heath. For example, the percentage of male to female is 21.7% and 20.9% respectively

Bad health

The proportion of male to female with bad health was highly skewed and this might indicated bias. For example, a larger percentage of female with higher education had bad health (2.7%), than male population (1.9%), while almonds those with intermediate education, the proportion of female with intermediate education with having bad health lower than that of the male. For example, only 3.1% of the population had bad health but with intermediate education as compared to 3.4% of the male population. On the other hand, the proportion of male with some qualification but with bad health was higher than that of female with some qualification but with bad health. For example, the ration of male to female was 5.9% against 5.3% for male to female respectively.  Finally, the proportion of male to female without any qualification was also different because only only 10.7% of the population was men without any qualification but with bad health, while 11.1 % of the male population had not qualification and were having bad health.

Very bad health

The proportion other population with very bad health was very low. For example, out of the entire population of male and female, only 0.4% of the male population with higher education had bad health as compared to 0.9% of the female population. On the other hand, only 0.6% of the male with intermediate education had very bad health as compared to the 0.7% of the female population. Additionally, only 1.6% of the male population that had some qualification had very bad health as compared to 1.9% of the female population. Finlay, only 2.4% of the male population without any qualification had very bad health, while 3.0% of the female population without any qualification had poor health.

General health

Generally, the female population had bad health as compared to the male, population. On the other hand, a larger percentage 42.5% of the population with higher education had very good health as compared to 0.7% often-entire population that had very bad health. Never the less, the  proportion of the people with higher education but with good health, fair health, and bad health was 42.7%11.8%, and 2.3% respectively. On the other hand, those with intermediate education with very good health made over 36.9%, while, those with very bad health but had intermediate education made up 0.7%. The rest of the population with intermediate education included 45% with food health, 13.7% with fair health, and 3.25 with bad health. Never the less, the proportion of the population with some qualification was made up of 30.1% with very good health, 43.1% with good health, and 21.3% withy fair health, while only 5.6% of the people with some qualification had bad health and very bad health was mad up of f1.8% of the population with some qualification. Finally, out of the entire population with no qualification at all, those with very good health made up a significant proportion as they formed 19.5\percentage, while 19.7% of the population was attributed to those with good health. On the other hand, bad health made up 10.9%, while very bad health made up 2.8%.

General health status

The general health status of the population was as follows. Those with very god health made up 33.4% of the population while those with good health made up 42.8% of the population, while those with fair health composed 17.3%, those with bad health made up 10.9%, and those with very bad health made up 2.8% of the population

Educational qualification

The community is more diverse because the people with intermediate education were 5583, while those with higher education were 4553, and those with no qualification were 4201. On other hand, the proportion of the population with some qualification was 1077. This indicates the people with intermediate qualification were more than the others followed by higher education and those with no qualification.

Discussion

The main idea that can be gleaned from the results above is that the community is made upon people with diverse qualification.  In addition, while larger proportion of the population have attained intermediate education or higher, the proportion other population with no qualification is also high.

The social implication of such statistics is that more schools should be developed for those without qualification to make them eligible for higher education. Better still, the community should think of formulating a policy that will see everybody without qualification attain free and mandatory training irrespective of the gender or age.  Additionally, special arrangement should be made of the female population as they form the largest percentage of the population of people without qualification and bad health.  Never the less, there is a significant relationship between education and god health because most of the people with higher education have good health, while those with little or no qualification have fair, bad, or very bad health.  The overall implication of this is that education is highly associated with the health status.  Therefore, if the community is to solve its health problems they have to educate more people especially the female members of their society, as they are the ones with higher percentage of non-people with no qualification and intermediate education.  The female members of the society are also the mostly affected in terms of health.

The symmetric difference

The symmetric difference (phi) of the tables below indicates that degree of concentrations of variables in the diagonal. Therefore, the phi or the correlation coefficient in this case is close to 0.2. Therefore, it is healthy to assume that the correlation is significant. As there is not intuitive interpretation to this, and this makes it important top consider the phi as 0.41. The percent difference between then the male and female population   in consideration of the relationship between the two. It is also healthy to indicate that the percent difference indicates that there is no causality between the two. It is also healthy to indicate that the association of the male and the female is not perfect and this defines lack of predictive monotonicity and lack of statistical independence

The symmetry indicates that the phi is weak to indicate that the level of symmetry is low and this indicates a negative relationship enabling the researcher to disregard the symmetrical measure with the dichonotomous nominal data. In this case, the data level was a nominal data for the 3 by three table.

It is also important to note that the spearman rank correlation is very sensitive to any form of shift in relations to the marginal distribution.

From the SPSS output for the chi square bellow, it is important to note that

References

Greenwood, P.E., Nikulin, M.S. (1996) A guide to chi-squared testing. Wiley, New York.

Nikulin, M.S. (1973). “Chi-squared test for normality”. In: Proceedings of the International           Vilnius Conference on Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics, v.2, pp. 119–      122.

Bagdonavicius, V., Nikulin, M.S. (2011) “Chi-square goodness-of-fit test for right censored         data”. The International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, p. 30-50

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